Laura Gray Political Cartoons
Language of Materials
Laura Gray (also known as Laura Slobe), born in 1909 in Pittsburgh, was a sculptor, painter, and a staff artist for the Socialist Workers Party newspaperThe Militant, producing weekly political cartoons for the publication from 1944 until her death in 1958. Gray used a large format for her work and was particularly effective in effective in capturing political personalities and sharply analyzing both national and international issues, particularly those that affected workers. The Laura Gray Political Cartoons collection consists of over 500 original Laura Gray cartoons covering nearly the entire time Gray worked forThe Militant. The medium used was a waxy crayon on paper. The collection also contains nine binders with reference copies of a majority of the cartoons. Several themes run through the cartoons, including anti-communism, the economy, racism, Jim Crow legislation, the Korean War, labor, political parties, and depictions of US presidents Roosevelt, Truman, and Eisenhower. The collection also includes a run of Gray's "Rich Bitch" series, which features caricatures of a stereotyped wealthy woman.
Laura Gray was born Laura Slobe, in Pittsburgh in 1909, to a prosperous Jewish family, but she grew up in Chicago. At age 16, she enrolled at the Art Institute of Chicago. By 19, she began exhibiting paintings, winning a number of prizes, and her paintings continued to appear in exhibits at the Institute and in several galleries. By the late 1930s, she began to produce and exhibit avant-garde sculpture as well, and eventually became known more for her sculpture than her painting. Her work continued to be shown in exhibits in the Chicago area until 1944.
From spring 1939 through September 1940, Gray worked for the Illinois division of the federal Works Progress Administration's Painting and Sculptures Section, creating works of art for the program , as well as serving as an art instructor for it in Illinois and in several other states, traveling as far afield as Oregon. Gray became friendly with a group of other Chicago avante-garde artists attracted by Troskyism. One of the group was George Perle (born George Perlstein, 1915-2009), a composer, whom she married in 1940. (In the 1960s Perle became a major theorist of serialism--a method of composition associated with Schoenberg's 12-tone technique—and was awarded a Pulitizer Prize and a MacArthur fellowship in 1986.)
In 1942 Gray and Perle joined the Trotskyist organization, the Socialist Workers Party (SWP), in Chicago. Not long after joining the SWP Laura Slobe took the name "Laura Gray," a "party name" (a pseudonym adopted by a member of a political party to hide his or her real identity to avoid political, legal or workplace persecution, surveillance and discrimination). Within a few weeks, she was assigned by the SWP to assist with organizing workers in the automobile industry, and she employed her artistic skills by drawing cartoons for a union shop paper. The SWP's branch organizer recognized her skill and encouraged her to submit a cartoon to the SWP's newspaper, The Militant. Gray's first cartoon inThe Militant appeared on March 4, 1944, and thereafter at least one of her cartoons appeared (under the name "Laura Gray") inThe Militant almost weekly for the rest of her life, and she became the paper's staff artist. Many of Gray's cartoons published inThe Militant were also reproduced in Trotskyist and Trotskyist-associated labor publications in as many as 20 countries. While many praised her work as a graphic artist—one scholar describing her cartoons as "naturalistic and powerful, in the tradition ofThe Masses' Boardman Robinson, and warrant[ing] comparison to artists such as Hugo Gellert and Robert Minor," Gray herself did not consider her cartoons to be serious art; she remained devoted to sculpture and painting.
Gray and Perle moved to New York City soon after World War II. They were legally divorced in 1952, but remained close friends. In the late 1940s and early 1950s she lived on and off with Duncan Ferguson (1901-74), a sculptor and fellow SWP member. Evidently her work forThe Militant was not enough to support Gray; she also worked simultaneously at a number of temporary jobs, including painting mannequins and creating window display art for department stores. As the years went by she devoted less and less of her time to her own art as a sculptor and painter, although she longed to return to it. Gray's health was fragile; she had suffered from tuberculosis in her early twenties, and had had a lung removed in 1947. She died in 1958, at the age of 49, when she contracted pneumonia that rapidly turned fatal. A prize in sculpture was established in her name at the Art Institute of Chicago, and a George Perle composed a quintet for strings titled "In Memory of Laura Slobe."
Gray used a large format for her cartoons. She was particularly effective in capturing political personalities (including U.S. Presidents Roosevelt, Truman, and Eisenhower) and sharply analyzing both national and international issues, particularly those that affected workers. Her subjects (chosen by The Militant's editorial committee) include racism (especially the Emmett Till case, Jim Crow legislation, the poll tax, and the Ku Klux Klan), labor and unemployment, and mainstream U.S. political parties. During World War II, subjects of satire included the War Labor Board, the no-strike pledge, and the Little Steel Formula; postwar the Marshall Plan, the Korean War, the red scare of the 1950s, and the United States government's embrace of dictators such as Spain's Francisco Franco, were included among her targets.
The Laura Gray Political Cartoons are arranged in two series: I. Cartoons and II. Reference Binders. The cartoons are arranged alphabetically by subject and the reference binders are arranged chronologically.
- 1. Cartoons
- II. Reference Binders
Scope and Content Note
The Laura Gray Political Cartoons consists of just under 600 original drawings that Gray produced for the Socialist Workers Party paperThe Militant.. The drawings cover nearly the whole of Gray's career atThe Militant, and span the years 1944-1957. The drawings are generally large format, waxy crayon on paper. They depict the major issues of the time, including the end of World War II, the rise of McCarthyism, and the Korean War, as well as current events and newsstories. Additionally, Gray's drawings portray political and labor figures of the day, including Presidents Roosevelt, Truman, and Eisenhower and labor leaders including Sidney Hillman, George Meany, and Philip Murray. The collection also includes nine reference binders that contain photocopies of 512 of the drawings, and a run of Gray's "Rich Bitch" series, which features caricatures of a stereotyped wealthy woman.
Conditions Governing Access
Materials are open without restrictions. Researchers are requested to use the complete set of photocopies (arranged in chronological order in binders) for reference whenever possible, in order to preserve the original materials.
Conditions Governing Use
Materials in this collection are in the public domain. Permission to publish or reproduce is not required. The donor requests that Laura Gray and The Militant are given credit whenever the images are republished.
Published citations should take the following form:
Identification of item, date; Laura Gray Political Cartoons; GRAPHICS 013; box number; folder number; Tamiment Library/Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, New York University.
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Donated by Frank Lovell, 1988. The accession number associated with this gift is 1988.015.
The accession number NPA.2000.337 is also associated with this collection.
The cartoons were originally prepared for The Militant by Laura Gray as part of her staff duties. The cartoons were held by George Weissman until his death. The collection was donated to the Tamiment Library in 1988 by Frank Lovell.
Physical Characteristics and Technical Requirements
Users are requested to use the complete set of photocopies (arranged in chronological order in binders) for reference whenever possible, to preserve the original materials.
Biographical information for this guide was mainly drawn from the following sources: Alan Wald, "Cannonite Bohemians After World War II." Against the Current, July/August 2012, pp. 25-35 (and PDF of extended edition on the Web: http://www.solidarity-us.org/pdfs/ATC%20159--Wald.pdf ) and Kent Worchester, "Sculptor, Painter, and Cartoonist: Laura Gray." New Politics, Summer 2013, pp. 159-163.
About this Guide
Processing Information Note
Original drawings were rehoused in acid-free folders and boxes. Physical arrangement and housing is based on the materials' size, and does not reflect intellectual arrangement.